You can configure a Veeam Agent for Microsoft Windows or Linux backup job as you would normally. Do note that not all restore options are available.
Consider that when choosing your Veeam backup repository target that this is not located in the same environment as the one you are trying to protect. With Azure Stack Edge it is recommended that these backups are stored outside of the source environment but local to the site you wish to protect for performance reasons. You can then use Backup Copy Jobs in Veeam Backup & Replication to a secondary destination or Scale-out Repository Capacity Tier support to send this data to Azure Blob.