Understanding Virtualization and Containerization

As technology continues to advance, optimizing resources by balancing investment between infrastructure and application deployment becomes increasingly important. Two leading methods for addressing these challenges are virtualization and containerization. This article will educate readers about the differences between these technologies and help determine which approach is best suited to achieving their goals. The distinctions between virtualization and containerization will be presented, followed by a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each method, including performance, resource utilization, security, and portability. By the end of this blog, readers will have the knowledge necessary to make informed investment decisions and effectively modernize their systems to deliver applications efficiently. Whether readers are new to these technologies or looking to expand their existing implementations, this guide will provide the insights needed to unlock innovation.

Defining Virtualization and Containerization


Virtualization, which is enabled by hypervisors, allows you to run multiple virtual operating systems (virtual machines or VMs) on a single physical server. Hypervisors are software or firmware components that create and manage a virtual environment. Virtualization provides abstraction for compute resources by emulating a complete hardware environment to allow each virtual OS to run independently. This abstraction of compute resources improves server usage and reduces resource costs as compared with dedicated physical systems.


Containerization is a technique that allows running multiple independent applications on a single operating system (OS) kernel without simulating hardware. Unlike hypervisor platforms that host virtual machines, containers can start up rapidly and be moved easily to different environments that have container clusters. By dividing the resources of the host OS kernel and running in separate user spaces, containers achieve quick startup and can be effortlessly transferred.

Comparing Virtualization and Containerization

Virtualization and containerization both aim to improve infrastructure usage, but they have distinct differences in their approach. Virtualization abstracts hardware to run multiple operating systems, while containers leverage a single operating system to run multiple applications. Depending on resource needs, containers can host many more instances than equivalent virtual machines.

However, virtualization incurs more overhead due to emulating hardware and booting operating systems. On the other hand, containers provide near-native performance since they share the host operating system kernel. Containers also offer faster deployment and startup times, taking only seconds instead of minutes.

It is important to note that containers are less isolated than virtual machines. If a vulnerability is found in the shared kernel, it could compromise all containers, whereas virtual machines are isolated by emulated hardware. Additionally, virtualization allows for running different operating systems, while containers are limited to the operating system kernel of the host. Currently, most containers are based on Linux images, but Windows-based containers are also available.

Virtualization and containerization provide two different approaches to improving your server efficiency and optimizing cost. The best solution will depend on your specific use case and requirements.

Key Differences Between Virtualization and Containerization

Virtualization and containerization are the two technologies used to abstract computing resources, but they have key differences:

Resource allocation

Virtualization creates VMs that require their own guest operating systems and allocate dedicated hardware resources like CPU, memory, storage, and networking. However, containerization utilizes the host OS’s kernel and shares hardware resources among containers. This means that containers share resources across multiple servers in a Docker or Kubernetes cluster.

Hypervisor requirements

VMs uniquely require a hypervisor to run guest OSs, like Windows or Linux, on your host hardware. This means that a hypervisor is an additional requirement for VMs. There are hypervisors that are included with Windows and Linux as well as competing, stand-alone hypervisors (like VMware, Xen, et al.) Containers which run across one or many physical servers, share the host OS kernel, so only one OS is needed to run multiple containers.

Speed and scalability

As stated above, containers have faster startup times and are more portable because they share the host OS kernel.  The lightweight nature of containers also allows you to run more of them on a given system. VMs, on the other hand, need to boot their own OSs and emulate hardware, resulting in slower startup times. Additionally, there is a limit to the number of hypervisors you can run on the same hardware.

Isolation and Security

VMs provide stronger isolation because they run on virtualized hardware using OS kernel facilities such as control groups. However, having multiple virtual environments on a single physical host introduces data security risks, as compromising the host puts all the VMs at risk.

Containers, while still offering some isolation on a single kernel, are vulnerable to the vulnerabilities of the host kernel. It is important to keep the host’s kernel up to date with security patches and deploy additional security modules including SELinux and AppArmor can be used to help secure containers.

When to Use Virtualization and Containerization


Virtualization involves running multiple virtual OS instances on a single physical server, providing a high degree of isolation between VMs and underlying hardware. Virtualization is well suited for scenarios where you need to run different OSs or versions on the same server to optimize your cloud infrastructure

Choose virtualization when:

  • You need to run legacy or incompatible applications on the same hardware.
  • You require strong security and isolation between workloads
  • You want to maximize your hardware resources by running multiple VMs.


Containerization involves bundling applications with their dependencies and configurations into container images. These containers can then run on a single operating system kernel and share the underlying hardware. Containers are lightweight, portable, and offer fast deployment and scalability.

Choose containerization when:

  • You want to package applications for portability across environments
  • Rapid deployment and scalability are top priorities
  • You need to isolate applications without isolating entire OSs
  • Hardware resources are limited but there is a high demand for unique applications (containers have smaller footprints than VMs)

Virtualization and containerization each have their strengths. Virtualization is the preferred choice for running and managing multiple operating systems on a server, while containers excel in quickly deploying and scaling applications. In some cases, a combination of both technologies may be used to maximize benefits. By understanding these differences, you can determine the most suitable approach to adopt in your environment.

Pros and Cons of Virtualization

Virtualization enables better utilization of hardware resources by consolidating multiple physical servers onto a single machine. This reduces infrastructure costs, power consumption, cooling expenses, and hardware maintenance.

Pro: Reduced cost

Virtualization enables better utilization of hardware resources by consolidating multiple physical servers onto a single machine. This reduces physical infrastructure costs, power consumption, cooling costs, and hardware maintenance.

Pro: Rapid provisioning

Pre-built templates facilitate fast setup and deployment of virtual environments. New VMs can be provisioned in minutes compared to the time it takes to set up physical hardware.

Con: Data security risk

Hosting multiple virtual environments on a single physical host introduces security risks. If the host is compromised, all the VMs on that host are also at risk. Strong security practices and access controls are essential to isolate virtual environments.

Con: Higher upfront cost

While virtualization reduces long-term costs, the initial investment in virtualization software and high-performance hardware may be significant. Procuring top tier servers, storage arrays, and networking equipment can be expensive. While costs of virtualized infrastructure may balance out over time, overprovisioned resources associated with VMs do not sort themselves out. Scaling inefficient resource allocations can lead to extensive costs at scale.

Con: Management overhead

Virtualization introduces complexity that requires skilled administrators and management software. Additional time and resources must be devoted to maintaining the virtualization platform, hosting resources, and the virtual platform.

Implementing virtualization with robust security and management controls can yield cost reductions and efficiency improvements. However, the associated risks, management overhead, and excessive provisioning of resources may make dedicated physical infrastructure more viable for certain use cases. Understanding the pros and cons helps determine if virtualization aligns with your needs.

Pros and Cons of Containerization

Containerization is a form of virtualization that isolates the computing environment without the need for a full OS. While many pros and cons of virtualization apply to containers, there are important distinctions:

Pro: Improved Efficiency and Agility

Containers share the kernel of your host OS, making them more lightweight and efficient than VMs. They consume fewer system resources and start up faster. Multiple containers can run on a single host, enhancing portability between environments. The improved efficiency and agility can enable faster application and infrastructure delivery.

Con: Potential security risks and management challenges

While containers share a host kernel, they are isolated from each other and the host system. The shared kernel may present some security risks if not properly addressed. Containers also require more advanced setup and management to implement proper security controls, networking, and storage. The management of multiple containers and hosts can become complex at scale as well. Additional tools and processes are needed to effectively manage your containers in production, which reduces the impact of these challenges

Con: Limited support

While container technology has gained widespread adoption, it is important to note that not all software and applications support containers. Containers may not be ideal or even possible for certain workloads. Containerizing legacy applications can pose challenges Moreover, containerization skills and experience are still developing in many organizations.

In summary, containers offer significant benefits in terms of portability, efficiency, and agility for application deployment and management. However, it is necessary to consider  the potential downsides related to security, management, and support. Containers share the host kernel and come with additional complexities that must be addressed. For many use cases, a combination of VMs and containers may be the optimal solution By implementing proper controls and management practices, containers can be made secure and viable for a wide range of applications.


In conclusion, both virtualization and containerization are powerful methods for optimizing infrastructure and deploying applications. While virtualization provides greater isolation and security, containerization offers enhanced portability and resource efficiency. When evaluating your options, consider your specific goals, available resources, and application requirements.

By carefully planning and understanding the strengths of both technologies, you can leverage them together to maximize benefits. It is worth noting that the future is likely to bring increased integration of these complementary approaches, unlocking even more potential. By gaining a clear understanding of the core capabilities and tradeoffs of each option, you can make informed decisions to modernize your architecture using virtualization, containerization, or a combination of both.

With the right approach, you can optimize your infrastructure, improve application deployment, and drive innovation in your organization. Embracing these technologies will ensure that you stay ahead in an ever-evolving technological landscape.

In a future post, we will talk about benefits from the intermediate step of containerizing virtual workloads.

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