An attempt to launch Veeam Backup & Replication fails with the message that Veeam Backup and Replication service is not running:
The service can actually be seen as running:
The following entries can be seen in VeeamShell.log:
[Timestamp] <01> Info ------- Started new session of Veeam Shell -------
[Timestamp] <01> Info Multi session mode: True
[Timestamp] <01> Info Terminal Services session ID: 2
[Timestamp] <01> Info Remoting options: 
[Timestamp]<01> Info Registering TCP client channel [bstcp]
And Svc.VeeamBackup.log contains the following entries:
[Timestamp]<17> Info Opening client session...
[Timestamp]<17> Info CVbClientSessionStub [s0] was created. SessionUID: [cbdcaaa6-9d47-4dac-85e4-ddc5caed701d]
[Timestamp]<17> Info Initialize lifetime service of CVbClientSponsor [ss0]
[Timestamp] <20> Info [Session cbdcaaa6-9d47-4dac-85e4-ddc5caed701d] Closing...
[Timestamp]<14> Error A transport-level error has occurred when sending the request to the server.
(provider: Session Provider, error: 19 - Physical connection is not usable) (System.Data.SqlClient.SqlException)