After installing Veeam Agent for Microsoft Windows and configuring a backup job, the settings are not shown in the Control Panel, and Veeam Agent for Microsoft Windows keeps prompting to configure backup settings.
The Windows OS was installed with non-English region and culture settings. As a result, these settings were applied to the Windows system account.
Veeam Agent for Microsoft Windows is based on Microsoft .NET Framework which has some limitations in term of particular OS cultures
You will need to set Format to English (United States) for the system account.
Go to the Region settings (press Win + R > type intl.cpl > press Enter)
Once the necessary changes are applied to the system account, a non-English Format can be set for the Current user account. Note, that the Format has to remain English (United States) for the system account.
Here is an example of a working configuration: